Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Family Planning Methods

As promised, here’s the next topic which I hope you will learn from in studying about female physiology.
Family Planning
How many American women use                                  Between 89% and 93%; yet 53% of
contraception and what are the rates of                     births are either unintended or
unintended or mistimed pregnancy in the                   mistimed
United States?
What are some of the reasons for                                 Failure of the method; Incorrect use;
contraception failure?                                                      Nonadherence

What are the two measures for                                     1. Theoretical effectiveness (perfect
effectiveness of a contraceptive method? use)                      
  the pregnancy rate among women who use the method
correctly every time

2. Actual effectiveness (typicaluse)
includes the chances of inconsistent or incorrect use

What factors about each method must be                  Coital dependence, convenience,
considered when counseling about                              cost, duration of action, protection
contraception?                                                                   against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), effect on menses, religion, reversibility, acceptability,
and side effects

What are the five main classes of                                 1. Rhythm method
contraception?                                                                   2. Barrier methods
3. Hormonal contraceptives
4. Intrauterine devices (IUDs)
5. Sterilization

Rank the following contraceptives from
the highest to the lowest with respect to
actual effectiveness. What is the failure
rate associated with each?

Condom, diaphragm/cervical cap,                                IUDs (0.12%)
injectable/implantable hormonal                                   Sterilization (0.44%)
contraception, oral contraception, periodic
abstinence (fertility awareness method),                    Injectable hormonal contraception
spermicide, sterilization, withdrawal                            (<1%)
Oral contraceptives (5%)
Male condom (14%)
Diaphragm or cervical cap (20%)
Female condom (21%)
Periodic abstinence (25%)
Withdrawal (19%)
Spermicide (26%)

What is the fertility awareness method?                     Predicting the time of month when a
woman is most fertile and abstaining during that time. Also known as the rhythm method

What three methods can be used to predict               1. Date of the last menstrual period:
fertility and which days are women                              days 819 of the cycle
presumed to be fertile?                                                    (peri-ovulation)
2. Changes in body temperature:
after menstruation until 3 days after an increase in basal body temperature by 0.51°F
3. Changes in cervical mucus: when the mucus becomes clear and stretchy (peri-ovulation) known as spinbarkeit

Why are fertility awareness methods                           Because people do not always
unreliable?                                                                           abstain during this time and because there is always some chance of fertility on the non-fertile days.
Body temperature and cervical mucus (especially if used together) are moreeffective than the calendar method because of irregular cycle lengths

What is the withdrawal method?                                   The withdrawal method is when the male withdraws from the vagina before ejaculation. It is ineffective when not timed correctly or when the pre-ejaculatory fluid contains sperm

Is lactation an effective means of birth                        Lactation is somewhat effective as a
control?                                                                                means of birth control because of the prolactin-induced inhibition of GnRH, which leads to a delay in return
to ovulation. Additional contraception should be used by breast- feeding women to prevent pregnancy

What factors affect the effectiveness of                     The number of times a woman breast
lactation as a means of birth control?                          feeds each day; How effective breast feeding is (i.e., how much milk she is producing); If the child is getting any supplemental feeding

Next topic Sterilization Methods..


  1. thanks man.. mabuhay ka blogger

  2. hi! indeed, your blog is very informative.

    you remind me of my seminar about reproductive health before. but may i ask, can you explain about the female condom? this is my first time to encounter that term.


  3. this is my answer to your question man.. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjmoQlAQP4Y


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