Wednesday, December 29, 2010

TIPS on how to answer questions during a job interview

hi, I came across lately about an article from my favorite website which I will be posting at the bottom about questions frequently asked during an interview and how to answer them. Happy 2011!!!



TIP: The 25 most difficult questions you'll be asked on a job interview

1. Tell me about yourself.
Since this is often the opening question in an interview, be extra careful that you don't run off at the mouth. Keep your answer to a minute or two at most. Cover four topics: early years, education, work history, and recent career experience. Emphasize this last subject. Remember that this is likely to be a warm-up question. Don't waste your best points on it.

2. What do you know about our organization?
You should be able to discuss products or services, revenues, reputation, image, goals, problems, management style, people, history and philosophy. But don't act as if you know everything about the place. Let your answer show that you have taken the time to do some research, but don't overwhelm the interviewer, and make it clear that you wish to learn more.
You might start your answer in this manner: "In my job search, I've investigated a number of companies.
Yours is one of the few that interests me, for these reasons..."
Give your answer a positive tone. Don't say, "Well, everyone tells me that you're in all sorts of trouble, and that's why I'm here", even if that is why you're there.

3. Why do you want to work for us?
The deadliest answer you can give is "Because I like people." What else would you like-animals?
Here, and throughout the interview, a good answer comes from having done your homework so that you can speak in terms of the company's needs. You might say that your research has shown that the company is doing things you would like to be involved with, and that it's doing them in ways that greatly interest you. For example, if the organization is known for strong management, your answer should mention that fact and show that you would like to be a part of that team. If the company places a great deal of emphasis on research and development, emphasize the fact that you want to create new things and that you know this is a place in which such activity is encouraged. If the organization stresses financial controls, your answer should mention reverence for numbers.
If you feel that you have to concoct an answer to this question - for example, the company stresses research, and you feel that you should mention it even though it really doesn't interest you- then you probably should not be taking that interview, because you probably shouldn't be considering a job with that organization.
Your homework should include learning enough about the company to avoid approaching places where you wouldn't be able -or wouldn't want- to function. Since most of us are poor liars, it's difficult to con anyone in an interview. But even if you succeed at it, your prize is a job you don't really want.

4. What can you do for us that someone else can't?
Here you have every right, and perhaps an obligation, to toot your own horn and be a bit egotistical. Talk about your record of getting things done, and mention specifics from your resume or list of career accomplishments. Say that your skills and interests, combined with this history of getting results, make you valuable. Mention your ability to set priorities, identify problems, and use your experience and energy to solve them.

5. What do you find most attractive about this position? What seems least attractive about it?
List three or four attractive factors of the job, and mention a single, minor, unattractive item.

6. Why should we hire you?
Create your answer by thinking in terms of your ability, your experience, and your energy. (See question 4.)

7. What do you look for in a job?
Keep your answer oriented to opportunities at this organization. Talk about your desire to perform and be recognized for your contributions. Make your answer oriented toward opportunity rather than personal security.

8. Please give me your definition of [the position for which you are being interviewed] .
Keep your answer brief and task-oriented. Think in in terms of responsibilities and accountability. Make sure that you really understand what the position involves before you attempt an answer. If you are not certain,ask the interviewer; he or she may answer the question for you.

9. How long would it take you to make a meaningful contribution to our firm?
Be realistic. Say that, while you would expect to meet pressing demands and pull your own weight from the first day, it might take six months to a year before you could expect to know the organization and its needs well enough to make a major contribution.

10. How long would you stay with us?
Say that you are interested in a career with the organization, but admit that you would have to continue to feel challenged to remain with any organization. Think in terms of, "As long as we both feel achievement- oriented."

11. Your resume suggests that you may be over-qualified or too experienced for this position. What's Your opinion?
Emphasize your interest in establishing a long-term association with the organization, and say that you assume that if you perform well in his job, new opportunities will open up for you. Mention that a strong company needs a strong staff. Observe that experienced executives are always at a premium. Suggest that since you are so well qualified, the employer will get a fast return on his investment. Say that a growing, energetic company can never have too much talent.

12. What is your management style?
You should know enough about the company's style to know how your management style will complement it. Possible styles include: task oriented (I'll enjoy problem-solving:identifying what's wrong, choosing a solution and implementing it"), result-oriented ("Every management decision I make is determined by how it will affect the bottom line"), or even paternalistic ("I'm committed to taking care of my subordinates and pointing them in the right direction").
A participative style is currently quite popular: an open-door method of managing in which you get things done by motivating people and delegating responsibility.
As you consider this question, think about whether your style will let you work happily and effectively within the organization.

13. Are you a good manager? Can you give me some examples? Do you feel that you have top managerial potential?
Keep your answer achievement and ask-oriented. Rely on examples from your career to buttress your argument. Stress your experience and your energy.

14. What do you look for when You hire people?
Think in terms of skills, initiative, and the adaptability to be able to work comfortably and effectively with others. Mention that you like to hire people who appear capable of moving up in the organization.

15. Have you ever had to fire people? What were the reasons, and how did you handle the situation?
Admit that the situation was not easy, but say that it worked out well, both for the company and, you think, for the individual. Show that, like anyone else, you don't enjoy unpleasant tasks but that you can resolve them efficiently and -in the case of firing someone- humanely.

16. What do you think is the most difficult thing about being a manager or executive?
Mention planning, execution, and cost-control. The most difficult task is to motivate and manage employees to get something planned and completed on time and within the budget.

17. What important trends do you see in our industry?
Be prepared with two or three trends that illustrate how well you understand your industry. You might consider technological challenges or opportunities, economic conditions, or even regulatory demands as you collect your thoughts about the direction in which your business is heading.

18. Why are you leaving (did you leave) your present (last) job?
Be brief, to the point, and as honest as you can without hurting yourself. Refer back to the planning phase of your job search where you considered this topic as you set your reference statements. If you were laid off in an across-the-board cutback, say so; otherwise, indicate that the move was your decision, the result of your action. Do not mention personality conflicts.
The interviewer may spend some time probing you on this issue, particularly if it is clear that you were terminated. The "We agreed to disagree" approach may be useful. Remember that your references are likely to be checked, so don't concoct a story for an interview.

19. How do you feel about leaving all your benefits to find a new job?
Mention that you are concerned, naturally, but not panicked. You are willing to accept some risk to find the right job for yourself. Don't suggest that security might interest you more than getting the job done successfully.

20. In your current (last) position, what features do (did) you like the most? The least?
Be careful and be positive. Describe more features that you liked than disliked. Don't cite personality problems. If you make your last job sound terrible, an interviewer may wonder why you remained there until now.

21. What do you think of your boss?
Be as positive as you can. A potential boss is likely to wonder if you might talk about him in similar terms at some point in the future.

22. Why aren't you earning more at your age?
Say that this is one reason that you are conducting this job search. Don't be defensive.

23. What do you feel this position should pay?
Salary is a delicate topic. We suggest that you defer tying yourself to a precise figure for as long as you can do so politely. You might say, "I understand that the range for this job is between $______ and $______. That seems appropriate for the job as I understand it." You might answer the question with a question: "Perhaps you can help me on this one. Can you tell me if there is a range for similar jobs in the organization?"
If you are asked the question during an initial screening interview, you might say that you feel you need to know more about the position's responsibilities before you could give a meaningful answer to that question. Here, too, either by asking the interviewer or search executive (if one is involved), or in research done as part of your homework, you can try to find out whether there is a salary grade attached to the job. If there is, and if you can live with it, say that the range seems right to you.
If the interviewer continues to probe, you might say, "You know that I'm making $______ now. Like everyone else, I'd like to improve on that figure, but my major interest is with the job itself." Remember that the act of taking a new job does not, in and of itself, make you worth more money.
If a search firm is involved, your contact there may be able to help with the salary question. He or she may even be able to run interference for you. If, for instance, he tells you what the position pays, and you tell him that you are earning that amount now and would Like to do a bit better, he might go back to the employer and propose that you be offered an additional 10%.
If no price range is attached to the job, and the interviewer continues to press the subject, then you will have to respond with a number. You cannot leave the impression that it does not really matter, that you'll accept whatever is offered. If you've been making $80,000 a year, you can't say that a $35,000 figure would be fine without sounding as if you've given up on yourself. (If you are making a radical career change, however, this kind of disparity may be more reasonable and understandable. )
Don't sell yourself short, but continue to stress the fact that the job itself is the most important thing in your mind. The interviewer may be trying to determine just how much you want the job. Don't leave the impression that money is the only thing that is important to you. Link questions of salary to the work itself.
But whenever possible, say as little as you can about salary until you reach the "final" stage of the interview process. At that point, you know that the company is genuinely interested in you and that it is likely to be flexible in salary negotiations.

24. What are your long-range goals?
Refer back to the planning phase of your job search. Don't answer, "I want the job you've advertised." Relate your goals to the company you are interviewing: 'in a firm like yours, I would like to..."

25. How successful have you been so far?
Say that, all-in-all, you're happy with the way your career has progressed so far. Given the normal ups and downs of life, you feel that you've done quite well and have no complaints.
Present a positive and confident picture of yourself, but don't overstate your case. An answer like, "Everything's wonderful! I can't think of a time when things were going better! I'm overjoyed!" is likely to make an interviewer wonder whether you're trying to fool him . . . or yourself. The most convincing confidence is usually quiet confidence.

http://symbianize.com/showthread.php?t=320717

.

Saturday, December 25, 2010

CANADIAN IMMIGRATION NEWS


Canada favored immigration destination in 2011

Thursday, 25 November 2010
According to Canadian Government officials, immigration levels will be higher than ever as the population ages and the birth rates stay low. Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism Minister Jason Kenney, expects between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2011.


"Canada's post recession economy demands a high level of legal immigration to keep our workforce strong. All of the country's labor force growth will come from immigration within the next five years," said Kenney.
Expectations in 2011 show the Federal Skilled Worker Programme to be the most popular means of entry. An estimated 25% of newcomers will be destined for provinces outside of Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec; this is an increase from 1997 at 11%. The Federal Skilled Worker Programme accepts workers in such fields as technicians, skilled tradespersons, managers and professionals.
Canada has shown to be a popular immigration destination for Irish immigrants. As there has been a significant influx of Irish expats looking for jobs abroad, finding significant success in Canada. Those looking for jobs in Canada are quite varied from mechanical engineers, IT system analysts, construction managers, accountants and marketing executives. Irish companies are also looking to the Canadian market as more than 220 Irish companies sell goods and services into Canada, with an additional 45 Irish companies operating offices and facilities in Canada.
Recently, the largest Irish trade mission in history was led by Mary Coughlan, Irish Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment, to Canada, visiting Edmonton, Toronto and Ottawa. The missions focus was to demonstrate and promote the success of world-class Irish companies that have had a break through into the Canadian market.
If you are interested in Immigration to Canada, contact Migration Expert for information and advice on which visa is best suited to you. You can also try our visa eligibility assessment to see if you are eligible to apply for a visa to Canada.

Thursday, December 9, 2010

Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective Coping

NANDA Definition: Inability to form a valid appraisal of internal or external stressors, inadequate choices of practiced responses, and/or inability to access or use available resources

Defining Characteristics: Lack of goal-directed behavior or resolution of problem, including inability to attend; difficulty with organized information; sleep disturbance; abuse of chemical agents; decreased use of social support; use of forms of coping that impede adaptive behavior; poor concentration; fatigue; inadequate problem solving; verbalized inability to cope or ask for help; inability to meet basic needs; destructive behavior toward self or others; inability to meet role expectations; high illness rate; change in usual communication patterns; risk taking

Related Factors: Gender differences in coping strategies; inadequate level of confidence in ability to cope; uncertainty; inadequate social support created by characteristics of relationships; inadequate level of perception of control; inadequate resource availability; high degree of threat; situational crises; maturational crises; disturbance in pattern of tension release; inadequate opportunity to prepare for stressor; inability to conserve adaptive energies; disturbance in pattern of appraisal of threat; chronic conditions; alteration in body integrity; cultural variables


Client Outcomes

1. Verbalize ability to cope and ask for help when needed
2. Demonstrate ability to solve problems related to current needs
3. Remain free of destructive behavior toward self or others
4. Communicate needs and negotiate with others to meet needs
5. Discuss how recent life stressors have overwhelmed normal coping strategies
6. Demonstrate new effective coping strategies
7. Have illness and accident rates not excessive for age and developmental level


Nursing Interventions and Rationales

  • Observe for causes of ineffective coping such as poor self-concept, grief, lack of problem-solving skills, lack of support, or recent change in life situation. 
  • Observe for strengths such as the ability to relate the facts and to recognize the source of stressors. 
  • Assess the risk of the client's harming self or others and intervene appropriately.
  • Help the client set realistic goals and identify personal skills and knowledge. 
  • Use empathetic communication and encourage the client and family to verbalize fears, express emotions, and set goals. 
  • Encourage the client to make choices and participate in the planning of care and scheduled activities. 
  • Provide mental and physical activities within the client's ability (e.g., reading, television, radio, crafts, outings, movies, dinners out, social gatherings, exercise, sports, games). 
  • If the client is physically able, encourage moderate aerobic exercise.
  • Provide information regarding care before care is given. Adequate information and training before and after treatment reduces anxiety and fear (Herranz and Gavilan, 1999).
  • Discuss changes with the client before making them. 
  • Discuss the client's and family's power to change a situation or the need to accept a situation. 
  • Use active listening and acceptance to help the client express emotions such as sadness, guilt, and anger (within appropriate limits). 
  • Encourage the client to describe previous stressors and the coping mechanisms used. 
  • Be supportive of coping behaviors; allow the client time to relax. 
  • Help the client to define what meaning his or her symptoms might have for the client. 
  • Encourage the use of cognitive behavioral relaxation (e.g., music therapy, guided imagery). 
  • Use distraction techniques during procedures that cause the client to be fearful. Distraction is used to direct attention toward a pleasurable experience and block the attention to the feared procedure (DuHamel, Redd, and Johnson-Vickberg, 1999).
  • Use systematic desensitization when introducing new people, places, or procedures that may cause fear and altered coping. Fear of new things diminishes with repeated exposure (DuHamel, Redd, and Johnson-Vickberg, 1999).
  • Provide the client and/or family with a video of any feared procedure to view before the procedure. Ensure that the video shows a client of similar age and background. Videos provide the client and/or family with the information necessary to eliminate fear of the unknown (DuHamel, Redd, and Johnson-Vickberg, 1999).
  • Refer for counseling as needed. 
    Geriatric
  • Engage the client in reminiscence. Reminiscence activates positive memories and evokes well-being (Puentes, 2002).
  • Assess and report possible physiological alterations (e.g., sepsis, hypoglycemia, hypotension, infection, changes in temperature, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and use of medications with known cognitive and psychotropic side effects). 
  • Determine if the individual is displaying a change in personality as a manifestation of difficulty with coping. An older individual's responses to age-related stress will depend on the balance of personality strengths and weaknesses. 
  • Increase and mobilize the support available to the elderly client. Encourage interaction with family and friends.
    Multicultural
  • Assess for the influence of cultural beliefs, norms, and values on the client's perceptions of effective coping. 
  • Assess for intergenerational family problems that can overwhelm coping abilities. 
  • Encourage spirituality as a source of support for coping. 
  • Negotiate with the client with regard to the aspects of coping behavior that will need to be modified. 
  • Identify which family members the client can count on for support. 
  • Use an empowerment framework to redefine coping strategies. 
  • Assess the influence of fatalism on the client's coping behavior. 
  • Assess the influence of cultural conflicts that may affect coping abilities.

    Home Care Interventions

    • The interventions described previously may be adapted for home care use.
    • Observe the family for coping behavior patterns. Obtain family and client history as possible. 
    • Assess for suicidal tendencies. Refer for mental health care immediately if indicated. Identify an emergency plan should the client become suicidal. Ineffective coping can occur in a crisis situation and can lead to suicidal ideation if the client sees no hope for a solution. A suicidal client is not safe in the home environment unless supported by professional help.
    • Encourage the client to use self-care management to increase the experience of personal control. Identify with the client all available supports and sense of attachment to others.
    • Refer to medical social services for evaluation and counseling, which will promote adequate coping as part of the medical plan of care. If no primary medical diagnosis has been made, request medical social services to assist with community support contacts. If the client is involved with the mental health system, actively participate in mental health team planning. Based on knowledge of the home and family, home care nurses can often advocate for clients. These nurses are frequently requested to monitor medication use and therefore need to know the plan of care.
    • Refer the client and family to support groups. 
    • If monitoring medication use, contract with the client or solicit assistance from a responsible caregiver. Prepouring of medications may be helpful with some clients. Caregivers in the home benefit from interventions that promote self-efficacy and provide a nurse for support (Dibartolo, 2002).
    • Institute case management for frail elderly clients to support continued independent living. Difficulties in coping with changes in health care needs can lead to increasing needs for assistance in using the health care system effectively. Case management combines the nursing activities of client and family assessment, planning and coordination of care among all health care providers, delivery of direct nursing care, and monitoring of care and outcomes. These activities are able to address continuity of care, mutual goal setting, behavior management, and prevention of worsening health problems (Guttman, 1999).
    • If the client is homebound, refer for psychiatric home health care services for client reassurance and implementation of a therapeutic regimen. Psychiatric home care nurses can address issues relating to the client's ability to adjust to changes in health status. Behavioral interventions in the home can help the client to participate more effectively in the treatment plan (Patusky, Rodning, and Martinez-Kratz, 1996).
    • NOTE: All of the previously mentioned interventions may be applied in the home setting. Home care may offer psychiatric nursing or the services of a licensed clinical social worker under special programs. Traditionally, insurance does not reimburse for counseling that is not related to a medical plan of care unless it falls under one of the programs just described. Public health agencies generally do not have the clinical support needed to offer psychiatric nursing services to clients. Clients are usually treated in the ambulatory mental health system.

    Client/Family Teaching

  • Teach the client to problem solve. Have the client define the problem and cause, and list the advantages and disadvantages of the options. 
  • Provide the seriously ill client and his or her family with needed information regarding the condition and treatment. 
  • Teach relaxation techniques. 
  • Work closely with the client to develop appropriate educational tools that address individualized needs. 
  • Teach the client about available community resources (e.g., therapists, ministers, counselors, self-help groups). 

 Toy Story 3

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Nursing Guide Reference

Nursing Guide Reference


Kindle Wireless Reading Device, Wi-Fi, Graphite, 6" Display with New E Ink Pearl Technology

Job Opening For Nurses in Singapore

Good news for nurses who wish to work abroad. There are many vacancies for qualified nursing graduates in medical institutions of Singapore. The job openings listed below are urgent and have POEA-approved job orders.





140 Assistant Staff Nurses for Singapore



* Female, 21 - 32 years old
* BSN graduate
* Board Passer
* At lest 1 year work experience as regular Staff Nurse In 100-Bed Capacity Hospital
* Area of exposure in ER-MS, General Ward, ICU, OR, Medical Surgical Ward, Orthopedic and Geriatric area.



Schedule of Interview: January 24, 2011 - January 26, 2011

Proposed Salary: SGD900 - SGD940 plus housing allowance



250 Female Registered Nurses for Singapore



* Female, 23 - 36 years old
* BSN graduate
* At least 3 years work experience as regular Staff Nurse in 200-Bed Capacity Hospital
* Area of exposure in ER-MS, General Ward, ICU, OR, Medical Surgical Ward, Orthopedic and Geriatric area.











Schedule of Interview: January 24, 2011 - January 26, 2011

Proposed Salary: SGD1400 – SGD1500 plus housing allowance

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Rule of NIne

To approximate the percentage of burned surface area, the body has been divided into eleven
sections:
• Head
• Right arm
• Left arm
• Chest
• Abdomen
• Upper back
• Lower back
• Right thigh
• Left thigh
• Right leg (below the knee)
• Left leg (below the knee)
Each of these sections takes about nine percent of the body's skin to cover it. Added all together,
these sections account for 99 percent. The genitals make up the last one percent. To apply the
rule of nines, add up all the areas of the body that are burned deep enough to cause blisters or
worse (2nd or 3rd degree burns).
Kindle Wireless Reading Device, Wi-Fi, 6" Display - with New E Ink (Pearl) Technology

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Medical Mnemonics

HYPERNATREMIA                                               
FRIED SALT
F - Fever (low), flushed skin
R - Restless (irritable)
I - Increased fluid retention & increased BP
E - Edema (peripheral and pitting)
D - Decreased urinary output, dry mouth

SALT
S - Skin flushed
A - Agitation
L - Low-grade fever
T - Thirst

HYPERKALEMIA - Signs & Symptoms
MURDER
M - Muscle weakness
U - Urine, oliguria, anuria
R - Respiratory distress
D - Decreased cardiac contractility
E - ECG changes
R - Reflexes, hyperreflexia, or areflexia (flaccid)

HYPERKALEMIA - Causes
MACHINE
M - Medications - ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS
A - Acidosis - Metabolic and respiratory
C - Cellular destruction - Burns, traumatic injury
H - Hypoaldosteronism/ hemolysis
I - Intake - Excessive
N - Nephrons, renal failure
E - Excretion - Impaired

HYPOCALCEMIA
CATS
C - Convulsions
A - Arrhythmias
T - Tetany
S - Spasms and stridor

BLEEDING - S/Sx
BEEP
B - Bleeding gums
E - Ecchymoses (bruises)
E - Epistaxis (nosebleed)
P - Petechiae (tiny purplish spots)

RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION - inducing drugs

STOP breathing
S - Sedatives and hypnotics
T - Trimethoprim
O - Opiates
P - Polymyxins

PNEUMOTHORAX - S/Sx
P-THORAX
P - Pleuretic pain
T - Trachea deviation
H - Hyperresonance
O - Onset sudden
R - Reduced breath sounds (& dypsnea)
A - Absent fremitus
X - X-ray shows collapse

PNEUMONIA - risk factors
INSPIRATION
I - Immunosuppression
N - Neoplasia
S - Secretion retention
P - Pulmonary oedema
I - Impaired alveolar macrophages
R - RTI (prior)
A - Antibiotics & cytotoxics
T - Tracheal instrumentation
I - IV dug abuse
O - Other (general debility, immobility)
N - Neurologic impairment of cough reflex, (eg NMJ disorders)

CROUP - S/Sx
SSS
S - Stridor
S - Subglottic swelling
S - Seal-bark cough

SHORTNESS OF BREATH - Causes
AAAA PPPP
A - Airway obstruction
A - Angina
A - Anxiety
A - Asthma
P - Pneumonia
P - Pneumothorax
P - Pulmonary Edema
P - Pulmonary Embolus
Romantic Words!!!





Remember these...?

J.A.P.A.N Just Always Pray At Night.

H.O.L.L.A.N.D Hope Our Love Lasts And Never Dies.

I.T.A.L.Y. I Trust And Love You.

Akala ninyo yun lang ah .. heto pa....

L.I.B.Y.A. Love Is Beautiful; You Also.

F.R.A.N.C.E. Friendships Remain And Never Can End.





C.H.I.N.A. Come Here! I Need Affection.

B.U.R.M.A. Between Us, Remember Me Always.

I.N.D.I.A. I Nearly Died In Adoration.



K.E.N.Y.A. Keep Everything Nice, Yet Arousing.

C.A.N.A.D.A. Cute And Naughty Action that Developed into Attraction

P.E.R.U. Porget Everyone... Remember Us.

K.O.R.E.A. Keep Optimistic Regardless of Every Adversity.



E.G.Y.P.T. Everything's Great, You Pretty Thing!



Y.E.M.E.N. Yugyugan Every Morning, Every Night.

R.U.S.S.I.A. Romance Under the Sky & Stars is Intimate Always.

Akala ninyo yun lang ah .. heto pa.... ulit...

M.A.N.I.L.A. May All Nights Inspire Love Always.

B.A.L.I.W.A.G. Beauty And Love I Will Always Give.

M.A.L.A.B.O.N. May A Lasting Affair Be Ours Now.

I.M.U.S. I Miss U, Sweetheart.

P.A.S.I.G. Please Always Say I'm Gorgeous.



C.E.B.U. Change Everything... But Us.



P.A.R.A.N.A.Q.U.E. Please Always Remain Adorable, Nice And Quiet Under Ecstacy.

T.O.N.D.O. Tonight's Our Night, Dearest One.

P.A.S.A.Y. Pretty And Sexy Are You.

M.A.R.L.B.O.R.O. Men Always Remember Love Because Of Romance Only.



P.H.I.L.I.P.P.I.N.E.S. Pumping Hot.. I Love It! Please Please.. I Need Erotic Stimulation!

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

50 Interesting Facts

hi everyone!! I have here some interesting facts that I hope would amaze you.. The site where I got this is posted at the bottom of this info.

1. If you are right handed, you will tend to chew your food on your right side. If you are left handed, you will tend to chew your food on your left side.

2. If you stop getting thirsty, you need to drink more water. For when a human body is dehydrated, its thirst mechanism shuts off.
--akala ko the other way around?

3. Chewing gum while peeling onions will keep you from crying.
--ma-try nga!

4. Your tongue is germ-free only if it is pink. If it is white, there is a thin film of bacteria on it.
--go check your tongue in the mirror!

5. The Mercedes-Benz motto is “Das Beste oder Nichts” meaning “The Best or Nothing”.
--

6. The Titanic was the first ship to use the SOS signal.
--ahh.

7. The pupil of the eye expands as much as 45 percent when a person looks at something pleasing.
--dilates and contracts.

8. The average person who stops smoking requires one hour less sleep a night.
--really?

9. Laughing lowers levels of stress hormones and strengthens the immune system. Six-year-olds laugh an average of 300 times a day. Adults only laugh 15 to 100 times a day.
-- oh ano pa hinihintay nyo? tawa na!

10. The roar that we hear when we place a seashell next to our ear is not the ocean, but rather the sound of blood surging through the veins in the ear.

11. Dalmatians are born without spots.

12. Bats always turn left when exiting a cave.

13. The ‘v’ in the name of a court case does not stand for ‘versus’, but for ‘and’ (in civil proceedings) or ‘against’ (in criminal proceedings).

14. Men’s shirts have the buttons on the right, but women’s shirts have the buttons on the left.

15. The owl is the only bird to drop its upper eyelid to wink. All other birds raise their lower eyelids.

16. The reason honey is so easy to digest is that it’s already been digested by a bee.

17. Roosters cannot crow if they cannot extend their necks.

18. The color blue has a calming effect. It causes the brain to release calming hormones.

19. Every time you sneeze some of your brain cells die.
-- lagot. cx

20. Your left lung is smaller than your right lung to make room for your heart.

21. The verb “cleave” is the only English word with two synonyms which are antonyms of each other: adhere and separate.
-- ....processing. xDD

22. When you blush, the lining of your stomach also turns red.
--yun pla yung sinasabi nilang butterflies in the stomach

23. When hippos are upset, their sweat turns red.
-- bloody sweat.!

24. The first Harley Davidson motorcycle was built in 1903, and used a tomato can for a carburetor.

25. The lion that roars in the MGM logo is named Volney.
--haha, pineke yan ng Tom and Jerry Show ee.

26. Google is actually the common name for a number with a million zeros.
--yah.

27. Switching letters is called spoonerism. For example, saying jag of Flapan, instead of flag of Japan.

28. It cost 7 million dollars to build the Titanic and 200 million to make a film about it.

29. The attachment of the human skin to muscles is what causes dimples.
--abnormality daw yan.

30. There are 1,792 steps to the top of the Eiffel Tower.
-- ansipag nung nagmeasure.

31. The sound you hear when you crack your knuckles is actually the sound of nitrogen gas bubbles bursting.
-- Uo.

32. Human hair and fingernails continue to grow after death.
-- ang gulo, ang sabi dun sa isang libro hindi na daw. after death, magiging rigid daw yung whole body a process called Rigor Mortis. this is the reason why we mistakenly interpret that hair and nails grow after death.

33. It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.

34. The plastic things on the end of shoelaces are called aglets.
--first ko nalaman to sa Phineas and Ferb! do u watch that?

35. Most soccer players run 7 miles in a game.

36. The only part of the body that has no blood supply is the cornea in the eye. It takes in oxygen directly from the air.
-- Oo, whew, buti nakikinig ako nun sa Bio Class.

37. Every day 200 million couples make love, 400,000 babies are born, and 140,000 people die.
--Oh my.

38. In most watch advertisements the time displayed on the watch is 10:10 because then the arms frame the brand of the watch (and make it look like it is smiling).

39. Colgate faced big obstacle marketing toothpaste in Spanish speaking countries. Colgate translates into the command “go hang yourself.”
-- waah, tlga?!

40. The only 2 animals that can see behind itself without turning its head are the rabbit and the parrot.
--Uo.

41. Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.
--sandamak2 na zinc siguro ang nasa utak ko ngayon...ay este kang Einstein pla!

42. The average person laughs 13 times a day.
--lampas na siguro ako nyan ng dahil sa triviang ito.

43. Do you know the names of the three wise monkeys? They are: Mizaru (See no evil), Mikazaru (Hear no evil), and Mazaru (Speak no evil)

44. Women blink nearly twice as much as men.
--napablink 2loi ako.

45. German Shepherds bite humans more than any other breed of dog.
-- Felines Rule!!! meow.

46. Large kangaroos cover more than 30 feet with each jump.

47. Whip makes a cracking sound because its tip moves faster than the speed of sound.

48. Two animal rights protesters were protesting at the cruelty of sending pigs to a slaughterhouse in Bonn. Suddenly the pigs, all two thousand of them, escaped through a broken fence and stampeded, trampling the two hapless protesters to death.
--how ironic.

49. If a statue in the park of a person on a horse has both front legs in the air, the person died in battle; if the horse has one front leg in the air, the person died as a result of wounds received in battle; if the horse has all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural cause.
-- dko napansin eun aah. haha. nice.

50. The human heart creates enough pressure while pumping to squirt blood 30 feet!
-- so if I poke my heart while lying down, i'll have this really cool blood fountain?



http://symbianize.com/showthread.php?t=119020

Monday, November 22, 2010

Benefits of Honey and cinnamon

Benefits of honey and cinnamon
View more presentations from Edison Reyes.


Benefits of honey and cinnamon - Presentation Transcript

  1. Honey and Cinnamon A MIXTURE FOR CURES
  2. INTRODUCTION
    • It is found that a mixture of Honey and Cinnamon cures most diseases.
    • Honey is produced in most of the countries of the world.
    • Ayurvedic, as well as Yunani medicine, have been using honey as a vital medicine for centuries.
    • Scientists of today also accept honey as a Ram Ban (very effective) medicine for all kinds of diseases.
    • Honey can be used without any side effects for all kinds of diseases.
    • Today's science says that, even though honey is sweet, if taken in the right dosage as a medicine, it will not harm diabetic patients.
    • A famous magazine named Weekly World News published in Canada dated 17 January, 95 has given a list of diseases that can be cured by Honey and Cinnamon as researched by western scientists.
  3. ARTHRITIS
    • Take one part honey to two parts of luke warm water and add a small teaspoon of cinnamon powder. Make a paste and massage it on the itching part of the body slowly.
    • The pain should recede within fifteen minutes in most cases.
    • Arthritis patients can take one cup of hot water with two spoons of honey and one small teaspoon of cinnamon powder every day.
    • If drunk regularly, even chronic arthritis can be cured.
    • In a recent research done at Copenhagen University, it was found that when the doctors treated their patients with a mixture of one tablespoon honey and half a teaspoon of cinnamon powder before breakfast, they found that within a week, out of the 200 people treated, 73 patients were totally relieved of pain within a month. Mostly of these patients could not walk or move around freely, but after the therapy, they started walking with less pain.
  4. HAIR LOSS
    • Those suffering from hair loss or baldness, may apply a paste of hot olive oil, one tablespoon of honey, one teaspoon of cinnamon powder before a bath and keep it for approximately 15 minutes, and then wash the hair.
    • It was found very effective if kept for 5 minutes as well.
  5. BLADDER INFECTIONS
    • Take two tablespoons of cinnamon powder and one teaspoon of honey in a glass of luke warm water and drink it. It destroys the germs of the bladder.
  6. TOOTHACHE
    • Make a paste of one teaspoon of cinnamon powder and five teaspoons of honey, and apply on the aching tooth. This may be done 3 times a day (daily) till such time, that the tooth has stopped aching.
  7. CHOLESTEROL
    • Two tablespoons of honey and three teaspoons of cinnamon powder mixed in 16 ounces of tea, when given to a cholesterol patient, reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood by 10% within 2 hours.
    • As mentioned for arthritic patients - If taken 3 times a day, it lowers the cholesterol level.
    • As per the information received in a Medical Journal, pure honey taken with food daily relieves complaints of cholesterol.
  8. COLDS
    • Those suffering from common or severe colds should take one tablespoon of luke warm honey with 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon powder daily for 3 days.
    • This process will cure most chronic cough, cold and clear the sinuses.
  9. INFERTILITY
    • Yunani and Ayurvedic have been using honey for years in medicine to strengthen the semen of men.
    • If impotent men regularly take two tablespoons of honey before sleeping, their problem will be solved.
    • In China, Japan and the Far East, women who do not conceive, and to strengthen the uterus, have been taking cinnamon powder for centuries.
    • Women who cannot conceive may take a pinch of cinnamon powder in half a teaspoon of honey, and apply it on the gums frequently throughout the day, so that it slowly mixes with the saliva and enters the body.
    • A couple in Maryland (USA) had no children for 14 years and had left hope of having a child of their own. When told about this process, both husband and wife started taking honey and cinnamon as stated above, The wife conceived after a few months and had twins at full term.
  10. STOMACH UPSET
    • Honey taken with cinnamon powder cures stomach ache and also clears stomach ulcers from the root.
    • GAS : According to the studies done in India and Japan, it is revealed that honey, if taken with cinnamon powder, relieves gas and pain in the stomach.
  11. HEART DISEASES
    • Make a paste of honey and cinnamon powder. Apply on bread or chapatti instead of jelly and jam, and eat it regularly for breakfast.
    • It reduces the cholesterol in the arteries and saves the patient from the risk of a heart attack.
    • For those who have had an attack in the past, follow this process daily and avoid the risk of another attack.
    • Regular use of the above process relieves loss of breath and strengthens the heartbeat.
    • In America and Canada, various nursing homes have treated patients successfully and have discovered that the arteries and veins lose their flexibility and get clogged. Honey and Cinnamon improves blood flow.
  12. IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • Daily use of honey and cinnamon powder strengthens the immune system and protects the body from bacteria and viral attacks.
    • Scientists have found that honey has various vitamins and iron in large amounts.
    • Constant use of honey strengthens the white blood corpuscles to fight bacteria and viral diseases.
  13. INDIGESTION
    • Cinnamon powder sprinkled on 2 tablespoons of honey taken before food, relieves acidity and digests the heaviest of meals.
  14. INFLUENZA
    • A scientist in Spain has proved that honey contains a natural ingredient which kills influenza germs and saves the patient from flu.
  15. LONGEVITY
    • Tea made with honey and cinnamon powder, and when taken regularly, arrests the ravages of old age.
    • Take 4 spoons of honey, 1 spoon of cinnamon powder and 3 cups of water and boil to make like tea.
    • Drink 1/4 cup, 3 to 4 times a day. It keeps the skin fresh and soft and arrests old age.
    • Life span also increases, and you begin to feel younger!
  16. PIMPLES
    • Take three tablespoons of honey and one teaspoon of cinnamon powder paste. Apply this paste on the pimples before sleeping and wash it the next morning with warm water. If done daily for two weeks, it removes pimples from the root.
  17. SKIN INFECTIONS
    • Eczema, ringworm and all types of skin infections are cured by applying honey and cinnamon powder in equal parts on the affected parts.
  18. WEIGHT LOSS
    • Every morning, on an empty stomach, half an hour before breakfast, and again at night before sleeping, drink honey and cinnamon powder boiled in one cup water.
    • If taken regularly it reduces the weight of even the most obese person.
    • Also drinking of this mixture regularly does not allow the fat to accumulate in the body, even though the person may eat a high calorie diet.
  19. CANCER
    • Recent research in Japan and Australia has revealed that advanced cancer of the stomach and bones have been cured successfully.
    • Patients suffering from these kinds of cancer should daily take one tablespoon of honey with one teaspoon of cinnamon powder for one month, 3 times a day and continue with the Oncologist’s treatment. No harm lost!
  20. FATIGUE
    • Recent studies have shown that the sugar content of honey is more helpful than detrimental to one’s body strength.
    • Senior citizens who take honey and cinnamon power in equal parts are more alert and flexible.
    • Dr. Milton, who has carried out extensive research on this subject, says that, half a tablespoon of honey taken in a glass of water and sprinkled with cinnamon powder taken daily after brushing, and again in the afternoon around 3.00 p.m. when the vitality of the body starts decreasing, increases the vitality of the body within a week.
  21. BAD BREATH
    • People of South America :
    • The first thing in the morning they gargle with one teaspoon of honey and cinnamon powder mixed in hot water. so their breath stays fresh throughout the day.
  22. LOSS OF HEARING
    • Honey and Cinnamon powder taken in equal parts daily, restores hearing .
  23. While you try the therapy… Forward this and let others also benefit.

Healthy Juice


healthy juice

Myths and facts about Tuberculosis

MYTHBUSTER
Tuberculosis: Myths and facts
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused by a bacterium called mycobacterium
tuberculosis. It spreads through the air. Dr Vasundhara Atre debunks some myths
associated with it.

Myth: Tuberculosis is hereditary
Fact: Tuberculosis is not hereditary. The tuberculosis bacteria are carried as
droplets in the air and enter the body through the airways. The spread occurs when
those having active,untreated infection in the lungs,cough, sneeze or speak, and
send the germs into the air, those around breathing in the air get infected.

Myth: Smoking causes tuberculosis
Fact: The cause of the infection is the mycobacterium tuberculosis. Smoking can
aggravate TB.

Myth: BCG vaccination protects against developing TB.
Fact: While the vaccine prevents the severe forms of TB in childhood, it does not
protect adults from developing the adult forms of pulmonary TB.

Myth: Tuberculosis affects only the lungs.
Fact: Tuberculosis primarily affects the lungs (80 percent) however other parts of
the body that can be affected include the genitor urinary tract,heart
(pericardium),brain,bones, lymph nodes,gastro intestinal tract,joints,skin almost
all parts except the nails and hair.

Myth: An individual who has been infected with the mycobacterium tuberculosis will
develop tuberculosis.

Fact: A tuberculosis infection does not always develop into tuberculosis
disease.It is estimated that only about 10 percent of infected people develop
tuberculosis sometime in their lives.

Myth: A positive tuberculosis test means that an individual has tuberculosis.
Fact: A positive Mantoux/ PPD tuberculosis skin test is only an indication that
there is an infection with a strain of the Mycobacterium. It is not a confirmation
that the disease is present.The positive TB skin test is only a confirmation of
exposure, to tuberculosis.

Myth: Individuals suffering from tuberculosis should be hospitalised.
Fact: Most patients suffering from tuberculosis can be treated at home and they
can continue to work.

Eric Berne's Transactional Analysis

Transactional analysis

Saturday, November 20, 2010

Nursing Diagnosis: Disturbed Body Image (with Rationale)


Related Factors:
  • Situational changes (e.g., pregnancy, temporary presence of a visible drain or tube, dressing, attached equipment)
  • Permanent alterations in structure and/or function (e.g., mutilating surgery, removal of body part [internal or external])
  • Malodorous lesions
  • Change in voice quality
NOC Outcomes (Nursing Outcomes Classification)
Suggested NOC Labels
  • Body Image                      
  • Self-Esteem
NIC Interventions (Nursing Interventions Classification)
Suggested NIC Labels
  • Body Image Enhancement
  • Grief Work Facilitation
  • Coping Enhancement                             
  • Assess perception of change in structure or function of body part (also proposed change).--The extent of the response is more related to the value or importance the patient places on the part or function than the actual value or importance. Even when an alteration improves the overall health of the individual (e.g., an ileostomy for an individual with precancerous colon polyps), the alteration results in a body image disturbance.
  • Assess perceived impact of change on activities of daily living (ADLs), social behavior, personal relationships, and occupational activities.
  • Assess impact of body image disturbance in relation to patient’s developmental stage.--Adolescents and young adults may be particularly affected by changes in the structure or function of their bodies at a time when developmental changes are normally rapid, and at a time when developing social and intimate relationships is particularly important.
  • Note patient’s behavior regarding actual or perceived changed body part or function.--There is a broad range of behaviors associated with body image disturbance, ranging from totally ignoring the altered structure or function to preoccupation with it.
  • Note frequency of self-critical remarks.

Therapeutic Interventions
  • Acknowledge normalcy of emotional response to actual or perceived change in body structure or function.--Stages of grief over loss of a body part or function is normal, and typically involves a period of denial, the length of which varies from individual to individual.
  • Help patient identify actual changes.--Patients may perceive changes that are not present or real, or they may be placing unrealistic value on a body structure or function.
  • Encourage verbalization of positive or negative feelings about actual or perceived change.--It is worthwhile to encourage the patient to separate feelings about changes in body structure and/or function from feelings about self-worth.
  • Assist patient in incorporating actual changes into ADLs, social life, interpersonal relationships, and occupational activities.--Opportunities for positive feedback and success in social situations may hasten adaptation.
  • Demonstrate positive caring in routine activities.--Professional caregivers represent a microcosm of society, and their actions and behaviors are scrutinized as the patient plans to return to home, to work, and to other activities.
  • Teach patient about the normalcy of body image disturbance and the grief process.
  • Teach patient adaptive behavior (e.g., use of adaptive equipment, wigs, cosmetics, clothing that conceals altered body part or enhances remaining part or function, use of deodorants).--This compensates for actual changed body structure and function.
  • Help patient identify ways of coping that have been useful in the past.--Asking patients to remember other body image issues (e.g., getting glasses, wearing orthodontics, being pregnant, having a leg cast) and how they were managed may help patient adjust to the current issue.
  • Refer patient and caregivers to support groups composed of individuals with similar alterations.--Lay persons in similar situations offer a different type of support, which is perceived as helpful (e.g., United Ostomy Association, Y Me?, I Can Cope, Mended Hearts).


Nursing Diagnosis: Chronic Pain

Nursing Diagnosis: Chronic Pain
NOC Outcomes (Nursing Outcomes Classification)
Suggested NOC Labels
* Pain Control
* Quality of Life
* Family Coping







NIC Interventions (Nursing Interventions Classification)
Suggested NIC Labels

* Pain Management
* Medication Management
* Acupressure
* Heat/Cold Application
* Progressive Muscle Relaxation
* Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
* Simple Massage

NANDA Definition: Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage (International Association for the Study of Pain); sudden or slow onset of intensity from mild to severe; constant or recurring without an anticipated or predictable end and a duration of greater than 6 months

Chronic pain may be classified as chronic malignant pain or chronic nonmalignant pain. In the former, the pain is associated with a specific cause such as cancer. With chronic nonmalignant pain the original tissue injury is not progressive or has been healed. Identifying an organic cause for this type of chronic pain is more difficult.

Chronic pain differs from acute pain in that it is harder for the patient to provide specific information about the location and the intensity of the pain. Over time it becomes more difficult for the patient to differentiate the exact location of the pain and clearly identify the intensity of the pain. The patient with chronic pain often does not present with behaviors and physiological changes associated with acute pain. Family members, friends, coworkers, employers, and health care providers question the legitimacy of the patient’s pain complaints because the patient may not look like someone in pain. The patient may be accused of using pain to gain attention or to avoid work and family responsibilities. With chronic pain, the patient’s level of suffering usually increases over time. Chronic pain can have a profound impact on the patient’s activities of daily living, mobility, activity tolerance, ability to work, role performance, financial status, mood, emotional status, spirituality, family interactions, and social interactions.

* Defining Characteristics: Weight changes
* Verbal or coded report or observed evidence of protective behavior, guarding behavior, facial mask, irritability, self-focusing, restlessness, depression
* Atrophy of involved muscle group
* Changes in sleep pattern
* Fatigue
* Fear of reinjury
* Reduced interaction with people
* Altered ability to continue previous activities
* Sympathetic mediated responses (e.g., temperature, cold, changes of body position, hypersensitivity)
* Anorexia

* Related Factors: Chronic physical or psychosocial disability

* Expected Outcomes Patient verbalizes acceptable level of pain relief and ability to engage in desired activities.

Ongoing Assessment

* Assess pain characteristics:
o Quality (e.g., sharp, burning)
o Severity (1 to 10 scale)
o Anatomical location
o Onset
o Duration (e.g., continuous, intermittent)
o Aggravating factors
o Relieving factors
Gathering information about the pain can provide information about the extent of the chronic pain.
* Assess for signs and symptoms associated with chronic pain such as fatigue, decreased appetite, weight loss, changes in body posture, sleep pattern disturbance, anxiety, irritability, restlessness, or depression. Patients with chronic pain may not exhibit the physiological changes and behaviors associated with acute pain. Pulse and blood pressure are usually within normal ranges. The guarding behavior of acute pain may become a persistent change in body posture for the patient with chronic pain. Coping with chronic pain can deplete the patient’s energy for other activities. The patient often looks tired with a drawn facial expression that lacks animation.
* Assess the patient’s perception of the effectiveness of methods used for pain relief in the past. Patients with chronic pain have a long history of using many pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods to control their pain.
* Evaluate gender, cultural, societal, and religious factors that may influence the patient’s pain experience and response to pain relief. Understanding the variables that affect the patient’s pain experience can be useful in developing a plan of care that is acceptable to the patient.
* Assess the patient’s expectations about pain relief. The patient with chronic pain may not expect complete absence of pain, but may be satisfied with decreasing the severity of the pain and increasing activity level.
* Assess the patient’s attitudes toward pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods of pain management. Patients may question the effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions and see medications as the only treatment for pain.
* For patients taking opioid analgesics, assess for side effects, dependency, and tolerance. Drug dependence and tolerance to opioid analgesics is a concern in the long-term management of chronic pain.
* Assess the patient’s ability to accomplish activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and demands of daily living (DDLs). Fatigue, anxiety, and depression associated with chronic pain can limit the person’s ability to complete self-care activities and fulfill role responsibilities.

Therapeutic Interventions

* Encourage the patient to keep a pain diary to help in identifying aggravating and relieving factors of chronic pain. Knowledge about factors that influence the pain experience can guide the patient in making decisions about lifestyle modifications that promote more effective pain management.
* Acknowledge and convey acceptance of the patient’s pain experience. The patient may have had negative experiences in the past with attitudes of health care providers toward the patient’s pain experience. Conveying acceptance of the patient’s pain promotes a more cooperative nurse-patient relationship.
* Provide the patient and family with information about chronic pain and options available for pain management. Lack of knowledge about the characteristics of chronic pain and pain management strategies can add to the burden of pain in the patient’s life.
* Assist the patient in making decisions about selecting a particular pain management strategy. Guidance and support from the nurse can increase the patient’s willingness to choose new interventions to promote pain relief. The patient may begin to feel confident about the effectiveness of these interventions.
* Refer the patient to a physical therapist for evaluation. The physical therapist can help the patient with exercises to promote muscle strength and joint mobility, and therapies to promote relaxation of tense muscles. These interventions can contribute to effective pain management.

Education/Continuity of Care

* Teach the patient and family about using nonpharmacological pain management strategies:
o Cold applications Cold reduces pain, inflammation, and muscle spasticity by decreasing the release of pain-inducing chemicals and slowing the conduction of pain impulses. This intervention requires no special equipment and can be cost effective. Cold applications should last about 20 to 30 min/hr.
o Heat applications Heat reduces pain through improved blood flow to the area and through reduction of pain reflexes. This is a cost-effective intervention that requires no special equipment. Heat applications should last no more than 20 min/hr. Special attention needs to be given to preventing burns with this intervention.
o Massage of the painful area Massage interrupts pain transmission, increases endorphin levels, and decreases tissue edema. This intervention may require another person to provide the massage. Many health insurance programs will not reimburse for the cost of therapeutic massage.
o Progressive relaxation, imagery, and music These centrally acting techniques for pain management work through reducing muscle tension and stress. The patient may feel an increased sense of control over his/her pain. Guided imagery can help the patient explore images about pain, pain relief, and healing. These techniques require practice to be effective.
o Distraction Distraction is a temporary pain management strategy that works by increasing the pain threshold. It should be used for a short duration, usually less than 2 hours at a time. Prolonged use can add to fatigue and increased pain when the distraction is no longer present.
o Acupressure Acupressure involves finger pressure applied to acupressure points on the body. Using the gate control theory, the technique works to interrupt pain transmission by "closing the gate." This approach requires training and practice.
o Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) TENS requires the application of 2 to 4 skin electrodes. Pain reduction occurs through a mild electrical current. The patient is able to regulate the intensity and frequency of the electrical stimulation.
Knowledge about how to implement nonpharmacological pain management strategies can help the patient and family gain maximum benefit from these interventions.
* Teach the patient and family about the use of pharmacological interventions for pain management:
o Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs) These drugs are the first step in an analgesic ladder. They work in peripheral tissues by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins that cause pain, inflammation, and edema. The advantages of these drugs are they can be taken orally and are not associated with dependency and addiction.
o Opioid analgesics These drugs act on the central nervous system to reduce pain by binding with opiate receptors throughout the body. The side effects associated with this group of drugs tend to be more significant that those with the NSAIDs. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, sedation, respiratory depression, tolerance, and dependency are of concern in patients using these drugs for chronic pain management.
o Anti-depressants These drugs may be useful adjuncts in a total program of pain management. In addition to their effects on the patient’s mood, the antidepressants may have analgesic properties apart from their antidepressant actions.
o Antianxiety agents These drugs may be useful adjuncts in a total program of pain management. In addition to their effects on the patient’s mood, the antidepressants may have analgesic properties apart from their antidepressant actions.
* Assist the patient and family in identifying lifestyle modifications that may contribute to effective pain management. Changes in work routines, household responsibilities, and the home physical environment may be needed to promote more effective pain management. Providing the patient and family with ongoing support and guidance will increase the success of these strategies.
* Refer the patient and family to community support groups and self-help groups for people coping with chronic pain. Adding to the patient’s network of social support can reduce the burden of suffering associated with chronic pain and provide additional resources.

Friday, November 19, 2010

Drug study guide

  1. cardiac glycoside  -  digoxin
  2. betablocker  -  inderal
  3. betablocker -   lopressor
  4. betablocker -   corgard
  5. calcium channel blocker -   verapamil
  6. calcium channel blocker -   nifedipine
  7. antihypertensive  -  catapres
  8. vasodilator  -  nitroglycerin/nitrates
  9. antihypertensive -   aldomet
  10. ace inhibitor -   vasotec
  11. ace inhibitor  -  captopril
  12. calcium channel blocker -   cardizem
  13. ace inhibitor  -  cozaar
  14. local anesthetic -   lidocaine
  15. antiarrhythmic (1a)  -  procainamide
  16. antiarrhythmic (1a)  -  quinidine
  17. antiarrhythmic (1c) -   tambocor
  18. antiarrhythmic (3) -   amiodarone
  19. bile acid sequestrant (lipid lowering agent for hypercholestemia)  -  Questran
  20. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lipid lowering agent)  -  lipitor
  21. cholesterol lowering agent  -  Niacin
  22. antiarrhythmic  -  adenosine
  23. anticoagulant  -  heparin
  24. anticoagulant  -  coumadin
  25. salicylate (antipyretic, nonopioid analgesic, anticoagulant)  -  aspirin
  26. water soluble vitamin (involved in hematopoiesis)  -  B12
  27. iron (prevents anemia)  -  ferrous sulfate
  28. antianemic hormone  -  aranesp
  29. colony stimulating factor (neutrophil stimulation)  -  neulasta
  30. antiheparin (neutralizes heparin by forming heparin-protamine complex) -   protamine sulfate
  31. fat soluble vitamin (antidote for coumadin)  -  vitamin k
  32. trace metal (management of zinc-deficient slow wound healing)  -  zinc
  33. water soluble vitamin (ascorbic acid prevents scurvy) -   vitamin c
  34. mineral (heart beat regulation)  -  potassium
  35. mineral (nerve transmission activator)  -  calcium
  36. water soluble vitamin (bone and eye health)  -  vitamin d
  37. loop diuretic -   lasix
  38. loop diuretic -   edecrin
  39. potassium sparing diuretic -   aldactone
  40. opioid analgesic (agonist)  -  morphine
  41. opioid analgesic  -  demerol
  42. opioid analgesic -   vicodin
  43. (acetaminophen) nsaid  -  tylenol
  44. (ibuprophen) nsaid  -  motrin
  45. nsaid  -  naprosyn
  46. nsaid  -  toradol
  47. antispasticity agent (skeletal muscle relaxant-centrally acting) -   lioresal
  48. skeletal muscle relaxant (direct acting)  -  dantrium
  49. skeletal muscle relaxant (centrally acting)  -  flexeril
  50. opioid antagonist (reversal) -   narcan
  51. diuretic -   mannitol
  52. antacid  -  maalox
  53. antacid  -  milk of magnesia
  54. bulk forming laxative  -  metamucil
  55. histamine 2 antagonist (antacid)  -  zantac (ranitidine)
  56. proton pump inhibitor -   prilosec (omeprazole)
  57. mucosal protectant  -  carafate
  58. GI stimulant (increase GI motility/stomach emptying) -   reglan
  59. phenothiazine antihistamine  -  phenergen (promethazine)
  60. phenothiazine antihistamine -   compazine
  61. centrally acting antiemetic  -  tigan
  62. stool softener -   doculax
  63. stool softener  --  docusate sodium
  64. bile salt (artificial to dissolove fats)    actigal
  65. serotonin blocker antiemetic  -  zofran
  66. serotonin blocker antiemetic  -  aloxi
  67. antiemetic  -  amend
  68. hyperosmotic agent (increases water in feces, causing elimination) -   Colyte
  69. alkylating agent (cancer)  -  cytoxan
  70. antimetabolite (5-fluorouracil)  -  5-FU
  71. plant alkaloid  --  vincristine
  72. alkylating agent  -  carboplatin
  73. antineoplastic cytoxic antibiotics -   doxorubicin
  74. antineoplastic (taxoid)  -  taxol
  75. antiestrogen agent (hormonal therapy)  -  tamoxifen
  76. antineoplastic progestin (hormone therapy)  -  megace
  77. antiandrogenic agent (hormonal therapy) -   eulexin
  78. biological response modifier (immunotherapy)  -  interferon
  79. biological response modifier (immunotherapy)  -  interleukin
  80. reverse transcriptase inhibitor (HIV/AIDS)  -  AZT
  81. antiandrogenic agent (hormonal therapy)  -  Lupron
  82. antimetabolite  -  methotrexate
  83. anti-infective (for eyes)  -  tobrex
  84. anti-inflammatory (eyes)  -  decadron
  85. local anesthetic (eye)  -  pontocaine
  86. vasoconstrictor (eye) -   visine
  87. miotic (cholinergic makes pupil small) -   pilocarpine HCL
  88. parasympathomimetic (reduces aqueous humor)  -  physostigmine salicylate
  89. betablocker (blocks adrenalin in glaucoma pt) -   timoptic
  90. betablocker (blocks adrenalin in glaucoma pt)  -  betagan (xalatan)
  91. cycloplegic (mydriatics- widens pupil for examination)  -  cyclogyl
  92. adrenergic mydriatic (dilates pupil) -   neo-synephrine
  93. anti-infective (antimicrobal for eye)  -  polymyxcin
  94. local anesthetic (for ear)  -  auralgan
  95. cerumenolytic (softens ear wax) -   debrox
  96. anti-infective (for skin) -   acetic acid
  97. anti-infective (  for ear)  -  swimmer's ear solution
  98. UV block (or absorbs Ex. zinc oxide for skin)  -  sunscreen
  99. antibacterial antifungal (skin)  -  silvadine
  100. antibiotic (skin) -   elase
  101. triple antibiotic (skin)  -  neosporin
  102. thyroid hormone replacement  -  synthroid
  103. parathyroid hormone (decreases bone turnover rate) -   calcitonin
  104. beta agonist (adrenal hormone)  -  epinephrine
  105. sulfonyluria (controls blood sugar level)  -  glucatrol (glipizide)
  106. pancreatic hormone -   insulin
  107. pancreatic hormone (elevates blood sugar)  -  glucagon
  108. somatotropin (anterior pituitary hormone) -   growth hormone (hGH)
  109. androgen hormone  -  depo-testosterone
  110. estrogen (female sex hormone)  -  estrogen (premarin)
  111. progesterone (female sex hormone)  -  progesterin
  112. thioamide (thyroid hormone blocker) -   PTU (Propylthiouracil)
  113. expectorant and antithyroid  -  SSKI (potassium iodide)
  114. progestin (birth control) -   norplant
  115. oxytocic prostaglandin -   cervadil
  116. mineral (anticonvulsant, anticholinergic) -   magnesium sulfate
  117. posterior pituitary female hormone (stimulates contractions/milk production)  -  oxytocin
  118. adrenergic bronchodilator -   brethine (terbutaline)
  119. short acting corticosteroid  -  prednisone
  120. short acting corticosteroid  -  solucortef

http://quizlet.com/563032/pharmacology-301-matching-flash-cards/
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